Best Engineering Universities In Europe – When US presidential hopeful Bernie Sanders painted a picture of the perfect model of higher education, he didn’t point to Harvard, Yale or Stanford; instead, he mentioned universities in Germany and Scandinavia. He saw their education systems as ones the US should destroy when he promised to make tuition free at public colleges and universities last year.
“This is not a radical idea,” he wrote on his campaign website. “Germany abolished tuition last year because it felt that paying students $1,300 [£894] a year was discouraging Germans from going to college…Finland, Norway, Sweden and many other countries around the world also offer free college for all.” its citizens. If other countries can take these steps, so can the United States of America.
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Gives importance to the senator’s rosy attitude; Germany, Finland and Sweden are among the top countries in the list of top 200 European universities. The ranking is based on the data and methodology used in the preparation of THE World University Rankings 2015-2016. Institutions are ranked based on their teaching environment, research environment, citations (research impact), industry revenue and international outlook.
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While the UK dominates the table with almost a quarter of places (46), including seven of the top 10, Germany is the second most represented country with 36 universities, almost a third (11) of which are in the top 50. The country’s institutions rate their teaching environment particularly well : a measure based on reputation as a faculty member, as well as indicators such as revenue and the number of students and PhD students per employee. They also achieve high average scores for research citations and industry connections.
Although Finland and Sweden are much smaller countries, they both punch above their weight in terms of population and gross domestic product (GDP) (see table below). Both countries have around 11 universities in the top 200 for a population of 10 million, ahead of the UK, Germany and the Netherlands. Other good indicators of these measures include Denmark, the Republic of Ireland and (per capita) Switzerland. In terms of the number of top 200 universities based on GDP per capita, which reflects purchasing power, the UK and Germany rank highest.
“The best research universities in north-west Europe … have significantly improved their performance and image globally over the past 15 years,” says Simon Marginson, Professor of International Higher Education at UCL’s Institute of Education.
“More than a decade ago, the first international ranking systems played on their energy to increase their performance in the face of a very strong American sector. In general, they received strong government support.
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Jussi Välimaa, a professor at the Finnish Institute for Educational Research at the University of Jyväskylä in Finland, says that one of the reasons for the country’s success is that “strong academic areas” can be found in “every Finnish university”.
“This means that every university in Finland achieves the highest international standard in one or more disciplines. It usually means a good academic reputation,” he says.
This system-wide excellence is due to the absence of “strong institutional stratification” in the country’s higher education sector, he adds. “You can say that all universities in Finland are good universities – or at least that there are no bad universities in Finland.
Finland’s main strength is its influence on research. However, while its international outlook score is the same as Germany’s and better than most Eastern and Southern European countries, Finland would still be in the bottom half of the table if judged by internationalization alone.
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Välimaa is worried that the international prospects of Finnish universities will deteriorate further when the country from 2017 August. will introduce tuition fees for foreign students: “It is very likely that Finland will follow the example of Sweden [which in 2011 introduced fees for non-EU students] and lose around 80 percent of its international students.
Paul Benneworth, chief scientist at the Center for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS) at the University of Twente in the Netherlands, also doubts that Finnish universities will back down after the funding cuts. in 2014 its spending on research and development was 3.17 percent of GDP (compared to 1.7 percent in the UK), but last year Prime Minister Juha Sipilä announced that by 2019 university budgets will be cut by approximately 500 million
“It will be interesting to see … if you get a Blackburn Rovers-type effect [that] the quality of the system will really drop quickly if the money is cut, or if … universities will operate at this speed.” at a high level [that] they can continue to operate at this level with reduced public funding,” says Benneworth.
The same question could be raised about Danish universities, given their government’s announcement in January that their funding would be cut by 6 percent. This prompted the country’s top-performing institution, the University of Copenhagen (33rd in the European rankings), to announce plans to lay off 7 percent of its staff (more than 500 employees), around half of whom are academics.
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For Benneworth, Germany stands out in this ranking. He cites two reasons for the country’s success: the government’s focus on improving the quality of institutions that were “difficult” and the universities themselves being “much better at playing” in league tables.
“There has been a conscious effort in Germany, driven by the league tables, and that is reflected in their performance in the league tables,” he says, specifically mentioning the government’s excellence initiative, which has pumped huge sums of money into a select group. institutions of the highest level in recent years. However, he adds that the league tables still do not reflect “how strong German higher education really is”. He argues that this is because other countries, such as Sweden, are even more aggressively improving the aspects of their education systems included in the rankings.
At the other end of the spectrum, eastern and southern Europe tend to do poorly in our Europe rankings. Countries in these regions perform relatively weakly (Estonia, Spain, Italy, Greece and Portugal) or do not make the top 200 at all (Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria and all of the former Yugoslavia).
Benneworth says it’s “exciting” that Estonia’s University of Tartu has made the rankings (marking the country’s first appearance in the top 400
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World University Rankings). He explains this by the fact that Estonia is “moving into a more Western orbit” and especially establishing close cultural and infrastructural ties with Finland.
Only five Russian institutions make the top 200, making it the lowest country in terms of population and GDP, although it ranks high in terms of GDP per capita.
Spain and Italy are also lagging behind. While Italy is the third most represented country on the list with 19 institutions and does well in terms of GDP per capita, its top-ranked Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa University only makes it into the top 50 and the rest. is usually outside the top 100. Spain has only five universities in the table and is the second lowest country in terms of GDP.
Välimaa cites the fact that Russian and Spanish academics are not “strongly involved in English-speaking international academic communities” as the main reason for the poor performance, adding that in Russia “the legacy of the Soviet Union is still felt strongly, as there was never a strong tradition of research universities in Russia”.
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Although the Russian government has made huge investments in the country’s top universities, its Project 5-100 is designed to provide enough federal support to have would help at least five Russian institutions enter the world’s top 100, V. Välimaa says that the funding “for the remaining almost 1,000 universities is not very good. Sustaining and establishing good universities requires resources and political consensus, and I am not sure that all Eastern European countries were willing or willing to do this.
Marginson adds that “regulatory hurdles” make it difficult for Spanish universities to attract and recruit foreign talent, while Russia “finds it difficult to pay foreign salaries at competitive rates and still has a talent drain abroad.”
“Another obstacle is that the research system is still partly tied to the nation, as it was in the Soviet era – in some disciplines [articles in international journals] are routinely translated into Russian before they can be used; Russia has a dismal international publishing record, and the level of international cooperation is still disappointing, despite political attempts to raise it,” says Marginson.
“Russian science still seems to believe that it gains maximum strategic advantage by freely accessing other ideas and holding back its own innovations.” But that old Cold War strategic logic no longer works.
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In today’s era, for universities to “increase their effectiveness”, they need to “engage and collaborate more to get ideas early, which means being an active producer of knowledge with something to offer”.
After the end of communism in 1990, Poland’s adoption of a market economy led to the emergence of many private universities.
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