How Did Swine Flu Spread – Mustafa MI, Ahmad A, Makhawi AM (2020) Genotype 4 Reassortant Eurasian H1N1 Avian-Like Virus: Are We Prepared for Another Global Threat or Pandemic?. J Infect Dis Epidemiol 6:159.

Commentary Open Access DOI: 10.23937/2474-3658/1510159 Genotype 4 Reassortant Eurasian H1N1 Avian-Like Virus: Are We Ready for Another Global Threat or Pandemic? Mujahid first Mustafa1*, Ayman Ahmad2 and Abdul Rafia Makhawi1

How Did Swine Flu Spread

The devastating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has attracted global attention. Meanwhile, another virus with high potential to become a global pandemic has emerged in China, where human infections from the Eurasian avian (EA) H1N1 genotype 4 (G4) strain have been reported. However, fortunately, human-to-human transmission has not yet been detected, but we must be aware of such a potential scenario, especially since once we fully understand the transmission of the virus, it may be possible to contain it and prevent a second world crisis. It is too late. . Health systems are collapsing under the current Covid-19 pandemic, however, we must prepare for the worst-case scenario of two pandemics coexisting, which would be a catastrophe that threatens all of humanity. A better international commitment to cooperation, a health system and early detection and response should exist worldwide.

Swine Flu Symptoms

A highly infectious swine flu virus is currently emerging through China. Genotype 4 (G4) strain and Eurasian avian-like H1N1 virus (EA) have the potential to cause a global pandemic. The expert identified pigs as the intermediate host for this strain of influenza virus. So far there is no evidence of human-to-human transmission, so we do not yet have another human epidemic [1]. Swine flu is a virus that multiplies among pigs as the primary host, while humans are not usually infected, when accidentally infected it is called a “variant influenza virus” which is limited. So far, 5 human cases of G4 EA H1N1 have been reported in China [2-6].

Pigs are prone to host, replicate, and spread influenza A viruses from birds, humans, and other infected pigs [7]. This susceptibility means that pigs are intermediate hosts designated as “mixing vessels” that serve as hosts for the development of influenza viruses. Influenza viruses sometimes exchange genes so that two or more viruses spontaneously infect the same pig or host, which is called reassortant (Figure 1) [1]. Sometimes this leads to a new strain that can infect humans. The threat of reassortment of influenza viruses is the generation of progeny viruses with new antigenic properties that enable them to escape immune detection, but can be eliminated at the cost of viral invasion, requiring a new vaccine [8]. The high similarity between G4 viruses and the prototype candidate vaccine virus (CVV) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the differences in the seasonal influenza vaccine make both vaccines ineffective against G4 viruses [1]. This creates an urgent need to develop an effective vaccine against G4 viruses.

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Figure 1: Genome segmentation in influenza A viruses. The eight RNPs form a supramolecular complex that is enclosed by a lipid-based coat through budding to form the virion. See Figure 1

Recent human infections among slaughterhouse workers identified in a surveillance study showed a prevalence of 10.4% of G4 EA H1N1 antibodies among 300 workers in 15 pig farms. Therefore, G4 EA H1N1 was identified as a novel swine influenza virus genome. The virus genome was characterized and genotype 4 (G4) was identified as dominant [1]. However, G4 viruses can bind to human SAα2, 6Gal-like receptors and replicate in human airway epithelial cells [ 1 ]. In addition, the animal model showed that the viral infection can be transmitted through the air, causing a significant increase in its infectivity [1]. Furthermore, the scientific evidence strongly suggests that if human-to-human transmission were to occur, we would face another major pandemic (Figure 2). Therefore, a systematic health surveillance of influenza virus in pigs and animals close to it is very important to prevent a pandemic.

Spatial Distribution Of The H1n1 2009 Swine Flu Pandemic In Us

Figure 2: G4 EA H1N1 re-evolution diagram showing the current known transmission cycle and the potential scenario for a pandemic of G4 viruses.

EA: Eurasian avian H1N1 virus (EA) pandemic strain 2009; TR: Triple Reassortants of Porcine Virus. Solid arrows indicate current known transmission directions and dotted arrows describe potential transmission scenarios. See Figure 2

Currently, health systems around the world are challenged by the COVID-19 pandemic and are struggling to contain it. The risk of the second most alarming global health emergency is dire, especially in the resource-constrained majority of developed countries where the system Hygiene is fragile and basic. Molecular diagnostic tools needed to identify viral infections are not available in most parts of the country [9]. Another major challenge for a successful prevention and control strategy is the common delay in sharing relevant data and information in a timely manner. ].

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In conclusion, we emphasized the importance of controlling the outbreak of G4 EA H1N1 virus in pigs. In addition, careful monitoring of human populations that are close to and/or in direct contact with pig farms and products, and most importantly, global collaborations focusing on transparency and timely sharing of relevant data for a strategy Successful containment is essential. In addition, a health surveillance with timely detection and response is crucial for the prevention and control of emerging viral diseases.

Facebook Maps The Swine Flu Hysteria

This research received no specific funding from funding organizations in the public, commercial or non-profit sectors.

© 2020 Mustafa MI, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any media, provided the original author and source are credited. In April 2009, the world was hit by a swine flu pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control estimated that in the first year, 43 to 89 million people worldwide were infected with swine flu, causing 8,870 to 18,300 deaths. Some people with swine flu have escaped serious complications, like Mateo, who you read about at the beginning of this chapter. At the time, swine flu spread rapidly because, as a newly evolved strain of the virus, most people had no natural immunity to it, and the existing flu vaccine could not prevent it. But in November 2009, a swine flu vaccine was developed and is now included in the annual flu shot in the United States. In August 2010, the World Health Organization declared that the H1N1 swine flu pandemic was over. The virus still exists, but because of the vaccine and the natural immunity of people who have already had the virus, its infection rates are no longer epidemic.

The swine flu virus appears to have originated in pigs and later developed the ability to infect humans. How can this happen? Scientists think that a process called reclassification played an important role. In reassortment, influenza viruses can exchange genetic material with each other if they infect the same cells. This creates new combinations of genes, somewhat similar to the genetic mixing that occurs in sexual reproduction when two parents with different genes breed together. As you know, genes help determine the characteristics of an organism, or in this case, a virus. Therefore, the production of new combinations of genes due to viral reassortment can lead to the evolution of new viral traits.

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In addition to reassortment, influenza viruses have other characteristics that make them evolve rapidly. Unlike sexual reproduction, viruses replicate much faster to produce new “offspring” particles. As you learned in this chapter, evolution is usually a slow process that takes place over many generations. But if these generations are produced quickly, like viruses and bacteria, the speed of evolution increases. In addition, RNA viruses have a very high rate of genetic mutation. The rapid evolution of the flu virus is one reason why the annual seasonal flu vaccine is not always effective against every strain.

Swine Flu H1n1 Influenza A Pandemic

But why did this flu pandemic come from pigs? Pigs are actually an ideal “mixing bowl” for the evolution of influenza viruses, as pigs can be infected with influenza viruses from other species, including birds and humans. Therefore, genetic reassortment can occur in pigs between virus strains that normally infect different species. This is what scientists think happened to produce the 2009 H1N1 swine flu virus. H1N1 2009 contains parts of genes from avian, human and two different swine flu viruses and is therefore called a “quadruple” virus. In the case of 2009 H1N1, this resulted in a new strain of influenza that could infect humans and be transmitted directly from person to person.

Figure (PageIndex): Different viruses that infect pigs may combine their genetic fragments to make a new virus.

Scientists do not know exactly when and where the 2009 H1N1 evolved, but they think the reassortment event may have occurred several years before 2009.

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