How Much Of The Earth's Water Is Polluted – The Earth’s mantle is the layer of silicate rock between the Earth’s crust and outer core. It has a mass of 4.01 × 10
Makes up about 84% of Earth’s volume. It is mostly solid, but on geologic timescales it behaves as a viscous liquid, sometimes described as having the consistency of caramel.
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Partial melting of the mantle at mid-ocean ridges produces oceanic crust, and partial melting of the mantle at subduction zones produces continental crust.
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The Earth’s mantle is divided into two major rheological layers: the rigid lithosphere, which consists of the upper mantle, and the more ductile astosphere, which is separated by the lithosphere-astosphere boundary. The lithosphere beneath the oceanic crust is about 100 km thick, while the lithosphere beneath the continental crust is generally 150–200 km thick.
The lower ~200 km of the lower mantle constitutes the D” (D-double-prime) layer, a region of anomalous seismic properties. This region also contains large regions of low shear rate and ultra-low velocity zones.
The top of the mantle is defined by a sharp rise in seismic velocity, first noted by Andrija Mohorovičić in 1909; this boundary is now called the Mohorovičić discontinuity or “Moho”.
The upper mantle is predominantly peridotite, consisting mainly of the minerals olivine, clinopyrox, orthopyrox and aluminum phase in varying proportions. The aluminum phase is plagioclase in the uppermost mantle, spinel and garnet below ~100 km.
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At the top of the transition zone, olivine undergoes isochemical phase transitions to wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Unlike nominally anhydrous olivine, these high-pressure olivine polymorphs have a high capacity to retain water in their crystal structure. This has led to the hypothesis that there may be a large amount of water in the transition zone.
At the base of the transition zone, ringwoodite decomposes into bridgmanite (previously called magnesium silicate perovskite) and ferropericlase. Garnet also becomes unstable at or just below the bottom of the transition zone.
The lower mantle consists mainly of bridgmanite and ferropericlase, with minor amounts of calcium perovskite, calcium ferrite-structured oxide, and stishovite. In the lower ~ 200 km of the mantle, bridgmanite isochemically transforms into post-perovskite.
Peridotite Gre xolites from the mantle are surrounded by black volcanic lava. These peridotite xolites were carried up by molten magma from the mantle during a volcanic eruption in Arizona.
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The chemical composition of the mantle is difficult to determine with great certainty because it is largely inaccessible. Exposition of mesenteric rocks rarely occurs in ophiolites where segments of oceanic lithosphere have been thrust onto a continent. Mantle rocks are also sampled as xolites of basalts or kimberlites.
Most estimates of mantle composition are based on rocks that sample only the uppermost mantle. It is debated whether the rest of the mantle, especially the lower mantle, is of the same composition.
The composition of the mantle has changed throughout Earth’s history due to the release of magma that solidified to form oceanic crust and continental crust.
A 2018 study also proposed that an exotic form of water known as ice VII could form from supercritical water in the mantle when diamonds containing pressurized water bubbles move upward, cooling the water to the conditions necessary for ice VII to form.
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In the mantle, temperatures range from about 500 K (227 °C; 440 °F) at the upper crust to about 4,200 K (3,930 °C; 7,100 °F) in the mantle core. border.
The mantle temperature rises rapidly in the thermal boundary layers at the top and bottom of the mantle and gradually rises through the interior of the mantle.
Although the higher temperatures greatly exceed the melting temperature of mantle rocks at the surface (about 1,500 K (1,230 °C; 2,240 °F) for a typical peridotite), the mantle is almost exclusively solid.
Normal lithostatic pressure on the mantle prevents melting because the temperature at which melting begins (solidus) increases with pressure.
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The pressure in the mantle increases from a few hundred megapascals at the Moho to 139 gigapascals (20,200,000 psi) at the boundary of the mantle core.
This figure is a snapshot of one time step of the mantle convection model. Colors closer to red are hot areas and colors closer to blue are cold areas. In this figure, the heat received at the core-mantle boundary causes the material at the bottom of the model to thermally expand, reducing its thickness and causing upward flows of this hot material. Also, the cooling of the material on the surface causes it to sink.
Because of the temperature difference between the Earth’s surface and outer core, and the ability of crystalline rocks at high pressures and temperatures to undergo slow, creeping, viscous deformation over millions of years, circulation of convective material occurs in the mantle.
Hotter material rises, while cooler (and heavier) material sinks. The downward movement of material occurs at converging plate boundaries called subduction zones. High elevations are predicted at the surface in locations above the plumes (due to the buoyancy of the hotter and less dse plumes) and hot spots of volcanism. Volcanism, often attributed to the deep mantle, is alternatively explained by passive extrusion of the Earth’s crust that allows magma to leak to the surface: the plate hypothesis.
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Convection in the Earth’s mantle is a chaotic process (in terms of fluid dynamics) that is believed to be an integral part of plate motion. Plate motion should not be confused with continental drift, which concerns only the movement of continental crustal components. The motions of the lithosphere and the underlying mantle are coupled because the falling lithosphere is an important component of mantle convection. The observed continental drift is a complex relationship between the forces causing the oceanic lithosphere to sink and the movements in the Earth’s mantle.
Although tdcy is more viscous at greater depth, this relationship is far from linear and shows layers of dramatically reduced viscosity, particularly in the upper mantle and core boundary.
The mantle, about 200 km (120 mi) above the core-mantle boundary, has distinctly different seismic properties than the mantle at slightly shallower depths; this unusual region of the mantle above the core is called D″ (“D double-prime”), a nomenclature coined over 50 years ago by geophysicist Keith Bull.
D ″ may consist of material from subducting slabs that fell and stopped at the core-mantle boundary, or a newly discovered perovskite mineral polymorph called post-perovskite.
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Earthquakes at shallow depths are the result of faults; however, below about 50 km (31 mi), hot high pressure conditions should prevent further seismicity. The mantle is considered viscous and fragile. In subduction zones, however, earthquakes are observed at altitudes of up to 670 km (420 mi). Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phonon, including dehydration, thermal escape, and phase change. The geothermal gradient can be lowered where cool material from the surface sinks down, increasing the strength of the surrounding mantle and allowing earthquakes to occur between 400 km (250 mi) and 670 km (420 mi) deep.
The pressure increases with depth because the beam of material must support the weight of all the material above it. However, the tire casing is believed to deform like a liquid over long periods of time, with permanent plastic deformation due to the movement of points, lines and/or planar defects through the solid crystals that make up the casing. Viscosity estimates for the upper range of the mantle in the range of 10
Temperature, composition, state of stress and many other factors. Thus, the upper mantle can flow only very slowly. However, when large forces are applied to the uppermost mantle, it can weaken, and this effect is thought to be important in allowing tectonic plate boundaries to form.
Exploration of the mantle generally takes place on the sea floor rather than on land because the oceanic crust is relatively thin compared to the significantly thicker continental crust.
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The first attempt to explore the mantle, known as Project Mohole, was abandoned in 1966 after repeated failures and cost overruns. The deepest was about 180 m (590 ft). In 2005, an ocean borehole was drilled to a depth of 1,416 meters (4,646 ft) from the ocean drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution.
More successful was the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), which operated from 1968 to 1983. DSDP, coordinated by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, provided important data to support the seafloor spreading hypothesis and helped to prove the theory. from plate tectonics. Drilling was carried out by Glomar Challger. The DSDP was the first of three international scientific ocean drilling programs that have been in operation for over 40 years. Scientific planning was carried out under the auspices of the Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Sampling of the Earth’s Surface (JOIDES), whose advisory group included 250 renowned scientists from academic institutions, government agencies and the private sector from around the world. The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) continued exploration from 1985 to 2003, when it was replaced by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP).
On March 5, 2007, a team of scientists aboard the RRS James Cook began a journey to the region of the Atlantic seafloor where the mantle is exposed.
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