Percentage Of Water Drinkable On Earth – It is a common fact that the world is covered in water. In fact, continents are like large islands in vast oceans. About 75% of the Earth is covered by water. There is no shortage of water on earth. Earth boasts some of the largest bodies of water including oceans, lakes, and rivers that cover about two-thirds of its surface. But even though three-quarters of the Earth is made up of water, less than 3% of that water is fresh, non-salty water. Furthermore, not all of the existing fresh water is available for human consumption.

As mentioned above, about 2.5% of the Earth’s water is fresh water. Of the fresh water available on Earth, only 31% is available for use. About 69% of fresh water is in the form of ice sheets and glaciers in places like Antarctica and the Greenland ice sheet, further reducing the amount of available drinking water. So if only 31% of fresh water is available for drinking, that means 31% of 2.5%=0.00775, which is less than 1%. Therefore, less than 1% of the Earth’s water is drinkable. In some areas, the glacier often melts in the summer to provide additional drinking water. However, the amount of water from glacial melt is not sufficient to increase the available fresh water to more than 1%.

Percentage Of Water Drinkable On Earth

Almost all available fresh water (excluding the glacier) is groundwater. The groundwater comes out and feeds the streams and saturated wetlands. It acts as a reservoir that can also be tapped for various uses, including in agriculture and industries. Groundwater accounts for approximately 40% of drinking water.

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Another important source of drinking water is surface fresh water. Surface water is held in lakes, rivers, ponds and streams. Although rivers and dams are critical to the water supply, they contain only 1% of fresh water. About 0.001% of fresh water exists in the form of atmospheric vapor, a small amount considering its important function in weather. But the atmospheric water is recycled several times during a year between the atmosphere and the Earth’s surface, leading to rain and snow. The rain and snow are crucial for replenishing the surface water

Of the less than 1% of water available for drinking, most third world countries do not have the resources needed to provide safe and clean drinking water to their citizens. According to the WHO’s 2008 report on drinking water and sanitation, approximately 885 million people, representing one eighth of the world’s population, do not have access to clean water. Around 3.6 million people die annually from diseases as a result of unsafe drinking water.

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Although surface water is an important source of drinking water, surface water is dependent on several variable rainfall patterns, making it unreliable. Protecting and managing underground and surface water is an important task to ensure the availability of drinking water. No one can create more water. But by managing the water sources and distribution systems, people maximize the available water and benefit from every drop. Most of the water in the Earth’s atmosphere and on its crust comes from salty ocean water, while fresh water accounts for almost 1% of the total water. Most of the water on Earth is brackish or brackish, with an average salinity of 35‰ (or 3.5%, roughly equal to 34 grams of salts in 1 kg of seawater), although this varies slightly depending on the amount of runoff received from surrounding land. Combined, water from oceans and marginal seas, saline groundwater and water from saline closed lakes account for over 97% of the water on Earth, although no single closed lake stores a globally significant amount of water. Saline groundwater is rarely considered except when evaluating water quality in arid areas.

The rest of the Earth’s water constitutes the planet’s fresh water resource. Usually, freshwater is defined as water with a salinity of less than 1 percent of that of the sea – i.e. below about 0.35‰. Water with a salinity between this level and 1‰ is usually called marginal water because it is marginal for many human and animal uses. The ratio of salt water to fresh water on Earth is about 50 to 1.

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The planet’s fresh water is also very unevenly distributed. Although in warm periods such as the Mesozoic and Paleoge where there were no glaciers anywhere on the planet, all fresh water was in rivers and streams, today most fresh water is in the form of ice, snow, groundwater and soil moisture, with only 0.3% in liquid form shape on the surface. Of the liquid freshwater, 87% is found in lakes, 11% in swamps and only 2% in rivers. Small amounts of water are also found in the atmosphere and in living things.

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Although the total volume of groundwater is known to be much greater than river runoff, a large portion of this groundwater is saline and should therefore be classified with the saline water above. There is also a lot of fossil groundwater in arid areas that has never been renewed for thousands of years; this must not be seen as renewable water.

The total volume of water on Earth is estimated at 1.386 billion km³ (333 million cubic miles), of which 97.5% is salt water and 2.5% is fresh water. Of the fresh water, only 0.3% is in liquid form on the surface.

Because the oceans that cover approximately 63% of Earth’s surface reflect blue light, Earth appears blue from space and is often referred to as the Blue Planet and the Pale Blue Spot. Liquid freshwater such as lakes and rivers cover about 1% of the Earth’s surface

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The Canadian cities of Thunder Bay, St. Catharines, Hamilton, Toronto, Oshawa and Kingston, as well as the US cities of Detroit, Duluth, Milwaukee, Chicago, Gary, Cleveland, Buffalo and Rochester all lie on the shores of the Great Lakes System.

Fresh groundwater is of great value, especially in arid countries like China. Its distribution is broadly similar to that of river surface water, but it is easier to store in hot and dry climates because groundwater storage is much more protected from evaporation than dams. In countries like Yem, groundwater from irregular rainfall during the rainy season is the major source of irrigation water.

Because groundwater recharge is much more difficult to accurately measure than surface runoff, groundwater is generally not used in areas where there are relatively limited levels of surface water. Today, estimates of total groundwater supply vary widely for the same region depending on the source used and cases where fossil groundwater is tapped beyond the rate of recharge (including the Ogallala Aquifer

Rivers and basins are often compared not by their static volume, but by their flow of water or surface runoff. The distribution of river runoff over the Earth’s surface is very uneven.

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There can be large variations within these regions. For example, as much as a quarter of Australia’s limited renewable freshwater supply is found in the nearly uninhabited Cape York Peninsula.

Even in well-watered continents, there are areas that are extremely water-scarce, such as Texas in North America, whose renewable water supply is only 26 km³/year in an area of ​​695,622 km.

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The oceanic crust is young, thin and dse, with none of the rocks in it older than the breakup of Pangaea.

Since water is much denser than any gas, this means that water will flow into the “sinks” that form as a result of the high density of oceanic crust (on a planet like Vus, without water, the depressions appear to form a large plain over which plateaus rise). Because the lower rocks of the continental crust contain large amounts of easily eroded salts of the alkali and alkaline earth metals, over billions of years salt has accumulated in the oceans as a result of evaporation that returns the freshwater to land as rain and snow.

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The variability of water availability is important both for the functioning of aquatic species and also for the availability of water for human use: water that is only available during a few wet years must not be considered renewable. Because most global runoff comes from areas of very low climate variability, total global runoff is generally of low variability.

In most arid regions, there is actually little problem with the variability of runoff because most of the useful water sources come from high mountain regions that provide a very reliable glacial melt as the main water source, which also comes during the peak summer period. high demand for water. This historically aided the development of many of the great civilizations of ancient history, and today allows agriculture in such productive areas as the San Joaquin Valley.

But in Australia and southern Africa the story is different. Here, runoff variability is much higher than in other continental regions of the world with similar climates.

Typically temperate (Köpp climate classification C) and dry (Köpp climate classification B) climate rivers in Australia and southern Africa have as much as three times the coefficient of variation

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