Where In England Is Kent – The Kingdom of Ktish (Old: Cantwara rīce; Latin: Regnum Cantuariorum), today known as the Kingdom of Kt, was an early medieval kingdom in what is now the Southeast Line. It existed from the fifth or sixth century AD until it was fully absorbed into the Kingdom of Wessex in the late 9th century and then the Kingdom of Gourmet in the early 10th century.
Under the previous Romano-British administration, the Kt area faced repeated attacks from pirates during the fourth century AD. It is likely that German-speaking foederati were invited to settle in the area as mercenaries. Following Roman rule in 410 AD, Germanic tribal groups of other languages moved to the area, as evidenced by both archaeological evidence and Post-Anglo-Saxon text sources. . The main ethnic group that settled in the area appeared to be the Jutes: they established their Kingdom in Eastern Kt and may have originally been under the dominion of the Kingdom of Francia. It has been argued that an East Saxon or Central Saxon community originally settled in West Kt and was conquered by the expanding East Kt kingdom in the sixth century, but this is uncertain.
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The earliest recorded king of Kt was Æthelberht, who, as bretwalda, had considerable influence over other Anglo-Saxon kings in the late sixth century. Anglo-Saxon Christianization began in Kt during the reign of Æthelberht with the arrival of the monk Augustine of Canterbury and his Gregorian mission in 597.
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Kt was one of the seven kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon heptarchy, but it lost its independence in the 8th century and became an emirate of Mercia. In the 9th century it became an emirate of Wessex, and in the 10th century it became part of the United Line Kingdom established under the leadership of Wessex. Its name has been forwarded since then as Kt district.
Knowledge of Anglo-Saxon art comes from scholarly study of Late Anglo-Saxon texts such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and Church History of the Glorious, as well as archaeological evidence such as the Medieval sites and settlements left behind, and landmarks (place names) evidence.
During the Romano-British period, the area of modern Kt east of the River Medway was a civitas known as Cantiaca.
Its name is taken from an older popular Brittonic place name, Cantium (“earth corner” or “land at the edge”) used during the earlier Pre-Roman Iron Age, despite the extension of the site. This tribal area is still unknown.
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In the late third and fourth centuries, Roman England was repeatedly raided by the Franks, Saxons, Picts, and Scots.
As the closest part of England to mainland Europe, it is likely that Kt suffered numerous raids from pirates, leading to the construction of four Saxon Coast Forts along the Ktish coast: Regulbium, Rutupiae , Dubris and Portus Lemanis.
It is also possible that German-speaking mercenaries from northern Gaul, known as foederati, would be hired to supplement the official Roman army during this period, with land in Kt being paid.
There is evidence that during the fourth and early fifth centuries, country villas were abandoned, suggesting that the Roman-British elite were moving to the relative safety of companies. solid city.
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However, municipalities also saw a decline; Canterbury shows a declining population and declining activity from the end of the third century onwards, while Dover was abandoned towards the end of the fourth century.
In 407, the Roman legions left England to deal with invasions of the Empire’s continental heartlands.
In 410, Roman Emperor Honorius sent a letter to his English subjects informing them that they had to fend for themselves and could no longer rely on the imperial army to protect them.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, produced at the end of the Anglo-Saxon route and not considered an accurate record of evts in the fifth century, in 418 many Romans left England via Kt, taking with them many of their properties. This may recall the memory of a guine exodus by the Roman aristocracy.
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According to archaeologist Martin Welch, the fifth ctury witnessed “the radical transformation of what became Kt, politically, socially and in terms of the natural landscape”.
There has been much debate about the scale of Jutish migration; some see it as a mass exodus in which large numbers of Germans left Northern Europe to settle in England, pushing the native British to western England or Brittany; others argue that only a small elite group of warriors arrived, dominating (or even enslaving) the Romano-British population, who began to use ancient language and material culture. of newcomers.
Roughly, many scholars accept that there are significant regional differences, with the former being more applicable to the south and east and the second to the north and west.
In Kt, archaeological and historical evidence suggests that a large-scale migration of Germanic peoples did indeed take place.
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However, some Romano-British inhabitants may have remained, as the Roman name for the area, Cantiaca, influenced the name of the new Anglo-Saxon kingdom, Cantware (“inhabitants of Kt”).
The migration of Germans to England is documented in text sources from the late Anglo-Saxon period, most notably the Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the Glorious and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; both rely on oral histories from the fifth century, and both are attempts to establish origin myths to justify the politics of the time.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a “king of the English” called Vortigern invited two German leaders, Hgist and Horsa (“horse” and “horse”), to England to help fight bandits. Peel Pictish. After arriving at Ypwinesfleot (Ebba’s Creek, modern Ebbsfleet near Ramsgate) in Kt in 449, Hgist and Horsa led the defeat of the Picts before debunking the British and inviting more Germanic tribes to colonize England. . Among these are the Old Saxons, Angles and Jutes; the latter settled on Kt and the Isle of Wight, establishing peoples known as the Cantware and the Wihtware.
According to the Chronicle, in 455, Hgist and Horsa fought Vortigern at Ægelesthrep (possibly Aylesford in Kt), in which battle Horsa was killed. Hgist succeeded him as king, followed by his son Æsc.
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In 456 Hgest and Æsc fought the English at Crecganford (possibly Crayford). The British fled Kt to their London stronghold.
A similar account is provided in the Church History of Bede: that the people of Kt and the Isle of Wight were evacuated from Jutish settlers, and that Horsa was killed in battle against the English, also added that his body was buried east of Kt.
The accuracy of these accounts is questioned; S. E. Kelly says that “legendary details are easy to dismiss”.
Scholars often consider Hgist and Horsa to be mythical figures borrowed from folk tradition, to legitimize the rulers of the Middle-Late Anglo-Saxon period.
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Germanic peoples settled on the main agricultural land of the Romano-Britons; especially the foothills to the north of the depression and Holmesdale to the south of the slopes.
It is likely that they completed agriculture by raising livestock, but given the nearby coastlines and rivers, it is also likely that they were engaged in fishing and trade.
The Anglo-Saxons used pre-existing Roman and prehistoric road systems, with 85% of cemeteries located within 1.2 km of the Roman road, river or navigable coastline. and the remaining 15% is located near the ancient trail.
There is little archaeological evidence of these early settlements, but a prominent example is a grubhaus in Lower Warbank, Keston built on top of an old Roman villa, adjacent to a road trail between the British and the Romans across the North Downs.
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Fifth-century pottery has also been found at several villa sites around Kt, indicating the settlement of these sites during this period.
In East Kt, fifth-century cemeteries consist mostly of inhuman burial grounds, with distinct Ktish character. In contrast, in West Kt cemeteries, such Orpington combines cremation with remains, which is more typical in Saxon cemeteries north of the Thames.
This may suggest that West Kt was at this time independent of East Kt, and was part of the East Saxon Kingdom north of the Thames Estuary.
In the sixth century, the Kingdom of Kt had some ties to the Merovingian-ruled Kingdom of Francia, which was expanding its influence in northwestern Europe.
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Archaeological evidence of Frankish material culture from this period has been found in Kt, but not in other parts of the English lowlands, suggesting a monopoly of trade with the kingdom. Frankish Kingdom.
Sixth-century Ktish artefacts have been found in continental Europe, especially in areas of modern Charte, western Normandy, Rhineland, Frisia, Thuringia and southern Scandinavia. The relatively close proximity of the Sein and Somme rivers across the English Channel glittering from the Saxons of Sussex, suggests that trade was established between specific tribal or ethnic groups rather than by geography.
There is also archaeological evidence of Ktish trade links in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, and copies or imitations appear in cemeteries further afield, in areas such as Wiltshire and Cambridgeshire.
To the south is the Weald, a forest of no value to the Ktish elite, leaving fertile areas to the west.
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